Structure of Science in Indonesian School


In order for junior high school students can learn science properly, then the science should be introduced as a whole, both related to the object, problem, or the level of organization of existing objects in the universe.

Dimensional sciences objects include:
a. Object-life: includes (a) Plantae (plants), (b) Animalium (animals) including humans, (c) Fungi (mushroom), (d) Protista, (e) Archebacteria, and (f) Eubacteria
b. Inanimate objects: includes (a) the earth (soil and rock, water, and air), (b) of the solar system, (c) galaxies, and (d) of the universe (the universe)

Based on the review in terms of organizational level dimensions of natural objects can be created gradations ranging from: (1). Sub-atoms (protons, electrons, and neutrons), (2). Atom, (3). Molecules, (4). Elements, compounds, and mixtures, (5). Substance and (6). Objects. As an example of a tree object, then the tree in terms of substance composed of solid substance in the form of fibers, the liquid form of water and solutes in it also contained the gas contained in the cell and between cells.

Dimension themes / issues of science can be studied the following aspects (Walde University, 2002:), namely:
1. Themes / issues science as a process of discovery (Science as inquiry) regarding (a). Scientific discovery and (b). Scientific method.
2. Themes / issues from the aspect of physical science (Physical science) involving: (a). The nature of matter and changes in material properties, (b). Motion and force, and (c). Energy transfer
3. Themes / issues from the aspect of biological science (Living science) involving: (a). Structure and function in living systems, (b). Reproduction and Reduction Properties, (c). Regulation and Conduct, (d), Population and Ecosystems, (e). To the diversity and adaptations of organisms.
4. Themes / issues from the aspect of Earth Science and Space (Earth and space science), examine: (a). Structure of the Earth system, (b). The formation history of the Earth, and (c). Earth and the Solar System
5. Themes / issues to do with technology, natural science (Science and techno-logy) to investigate (a). Technology designs, (b). The connection of science and technology
6. Themes / issues IPA from personal and social perspectives (Personal and Social perpectives) study, (a). Health state, (b). Population, resources, and environment, (c). Natural disasters, (d). Risks and benefits, and (e). Science, technology and society.
7. Themes / issues from the science side of history and nature of science (and natural history of science) to study, (a). IPA as a result rekadaya / human endeavor, (b). Nature of science as a science, and (c). The history of science as a science.

Especially for themes / issues related to biological aspects can also be approached with what has been developed by the BSCS (BSCS, 1996) which includes:
a. Patterns of evolution and product changes (Evolution: patterns and products of change).
b. Interaction and interdependence (Interaction and interdependence).
c. Custody / maintenance of dynamic balance (Maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium).
d. Growth, development, differentiation (Growth, development, and differentiation).
e. Genetic continuity (Genetic continuity)
f. Energy, materials and organization (Energy, matter, and organization)
g. Science, technology, and society (Science, Technology, and Society)

Bentley and Watts (1989) suggested that the issue or theme of science can be studied from the aspect of ability that will be developed in self-learners, which includes aspects of communicating scientific concepts, aspects of the development of basic science concepts, and developing awareness of science in economic and social context.


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