Active Learning Strategies

Active learning (active learning) is intended to optimize the use of all the potential possessed by the students, so that all students can achieve a satisfactory learning outcomes in accordance with their personal characteristics. In addition, active learning (active learning) is also intended to keep the attention of the student / students to stay focused on the learning process.

Several studies have shown that the attention of students decrease simultaneously with the passage of time. Research Pollio (1984) showed that students in classrooms only pay attention to lessons about 40% of the available learning time. Meanwhile, research McKeachie (1986) mention that in the first ten minutes perthatian students can reach 70%, and reduced up to 20% in the last 20 minutes. The above conditions is a common condition that often occurs in a school setting. This has caused frequent failures in our educational world, mainly due to students in classrooms using the senses of hearing more than visual, so that what is learned in this class tend to be overlooked. As disclosed Konfucius: What I hear, I forget; What I see, I remember; What I do, I understand.

Thirdly this statement emphasizes the importance of active learning so that what is learned in school does not become a vain thing. Above expression as well as answering frequently encountered problems in the learning process, that is not thoroughly mastery protege of learning materials. Mel Silberman (2001) modify and expand on the statement of Confucius became what he calls with active learning (active learning), namely: What I hear, I forget; What I hear and see, I remember a little; What I hear, see and inquire or discuss with some other friends, I began to understand; What I hear, see, discuss and do, I acquire knowledge and skills; What I teach to someone else, I mastered.

There are several reasons suggested regarding the cause of why most people tend to forget what they heard. One answer that is interesting because of the difference between the speed of speech teachers with the level of student ability to listen to what the teachers. Most teachers spoke about 100-200 words per minute, while students could only listen to 50-100 words per minute (half of what was put forward by teachers), because the students listening to teacher thinking. The human brain works is not the same with a tape recorder that can record sound as much as what is spoken in a time equal to the time of pronunciation. The human brain is always to question any information that goes into it, and the brain also processes all the information he receives, so that attention can not be fixed on the overall stimulus. This causes not everything can be remembered very well studied.

Additional visual learning process can increase the memory up to 171% of the original memory. With the addition of visual auditory learning in addition to the impression that incoming students in getting stronger so it can survive longer than those with only audio (hearing) only. This is because the sensation function by student attention on each other, what is heard strengthened by the sight (visual), and what views were strengthened by audio (hearing). In learning the meaning of the word in this way have been followed by reinforcement (reinforcement), which is helpful for understanding the students to learning materials.

The latest research about brain states that the right hemisphere of human brain cortex works 10,000 times faster than the left hemisphere of the brain conscious. Use language to make people think with the speed of the word. Limbic brain (the deeper parts of the brain) works 10,000 times faster than the right brain cortex, as well as organizing and directing the entire process right brain. Therefore, some mental process is much faster than the conscious experience or thought someone (Win Wenger, 2003:12-13). Conventional learning strategies in general, more use of the left hemisphere (brain unconsciously) only, while the right hemisphere is less noticed. On learning with Active learning (active learning) empowering the left and right brain is very important. Thorndike (Ben Wagito, 1997) proposed three laws of learning, namely:
a. Law of readiness, the readiness of people to do can facilitate the relationship between stimulus and response.
b. Law of exercise, namely the existence of a repeat test is always done then the relationship between stimulus and response will be smooth
c. Law of effect, namely the relationship between stimulus and response would be better if it can lead to things that are fun, and this tends to be always repeated.

The learning process is basically giving stimuli to the students, so that the occurrence of a positive response on the students themselves. Willingness and readiness to follow in the learning process for the process be able to generate a good response to the stimuli they receive in the learning process. The response will be stronger if stimulusnya also strong. Repetition-repetition of a stimulus can facilitate the relationship between stimulus and response, so that the generated response will be strong. This will also give a strong impression on the students themselves, so they will be able to maintain that response in memory (memory) it. The relationship between stimulus and response would be better if you can produce wonderful things. Pleasant stimulus effect generated would be able to give a deep impression on the students themselves, so they tend to repeat the activity. As a result of this is the protégé could retain the stimulus in their memory for a long time (longterm memory), so they are able merecall what they earn in learning without experiencing any resistance.

Active learning (active learning) is basically trying to strengthen and accelerate the stimulus and response of the students in learning, so that the process of learning becomes a fun thing, not a boring thing to them. By providing active learning strategies (active learning) can assist students in memory (memory) them, so they can be delivered to the learning objectives with success. This lack of attention on conventional learning. In the active learning method (active learning) each new lesson which must be associated with a range of knowledge and experience that existed previously. New teaching materials provided actively with existing knowledge. So that students can learn actively teachers need to create appropriate strategies so that learners have a high motivation to learn. (Mulyasa, 2004:241).



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