Change is a natural form that happens, even the philosophers argue that nothing in this world of eternal unless the changes. Apparently this change is something that should happen but not often be avoided by humans. All changes will take the risk, but strategies to maintain the structure of a curriculum without a change will bring disaster and misfortune, because the condition a curriculum in a position to lead the education status quo remains and the generation of these nations can not pursue the progress achieved through the changes.
Thus, innovation is always needed, especially in education, to address problems that are not only limited to education issues but also issues that affect the smooth process of education. Rosenblum & Louis (1981: 1) argue the need for innovation in education:
Declining enrollments, rapid changes in the existing technology and knowledge about teaching and learning processes, a continual expansion of the role of the school into new areas, and changes in the prevailing cultural preferences of both Local Communities and the larger society continually impel schools to inovate .
The word innovation is often associated with the change, but not every change can be categorized as innovation. Rogers (1983: 11) gave restriction is meant by innovation is an idea, practice, or object new object which is seen by someone or other adopter groups. The word “new” is very relative, because someone could just find out, or it could be because just about to receive even though it was long known. Furthermore, Rogers (1983: 12-16) suggested that the characteristics contained by an innovation include:
a. The existence of relative superiority, the extent to which innovation is considered better than previous ideas. Usually the criterion is economic factors, social, satisfaction, and comfort.
b. Suitability; refers to how an innovation is considered consistent with existing values, past experience, and to what extent can address the needs of potential recipients (adopter)
c. Complexity; thing this complexity with respect to level of difficulty of an innovation to be compared with its usefulness. Does the idea of innovation is simple or difficult to understand, and whether the level of difficulty is balanced by its usefulness.
d. Trialabilitas; this aspect relates to how ketercobaannya level. Whether the innovation is easy to be tested.
e. Observabilitas; refers to how the benefits (outcomes) of innovation can be viewed by the public, especially the local community.
Based on Rogers’ limitations and explanations, it can be argued that the emergence of innovation because there is a problem that must be overcome, and efforts to overcome these problems through innovation (often referred to by the term “renewal” although this term is not synonymous with innovation). This innovation should be the result of original thinking, creative and unconventional. Implementation should be practical where it includes the elements of comfort and convenience. All of this is raised as an effort to improve the situation / circumstances that faced with the problem.
As has been stated that the emergence of an innovation is as an alternative to solving the problem, then the first step in developing an innovation preceded by an introduction to the problem (Rogers, 1983; Lehman, 1981). Identification of the problem is then encouraged to do research and development (R & D) or evaluation of curricula, designed to create an innovation. In this regard need to be noted that the innovation will have a meaning if the innovation is implemented or adopted, because if innovation is not implemented / adopted / disseminated the innovation is innovation that will only become unused. Against the adoption of this strategy is known centralization and decentralization strategy. (Called the spread / diffusion of innovation when viewed from the side of developer innovation, while innovation is the adoption procedure in terms of the potential users / adopters). Neither centralization nor decentralization strategy will create new problems at the time of adoption / diffusion.
One important aspect of education in any context is to consider the curriculum promoted by the education. Often patients with curriculum as object, in the sense that the failure a result of education is too often the curriculum change. In fact, it should be understood that the curriculum should be dynamic, must change with the changes that occur in society. Cuban (1991: 216) argued that to understand the changes in curriculum need to understand three basic thoughts on the changes of (a) the plan change is always good, (b) must be separated between the change (change) with stability (stability), and (c ) if the plan changes had been adopted then the need for a revision of the plan (improvement).
Refers to what is described above, the issue presented in this paper relates to (a) The innovative aspects contained in the SBC, (b) challenges in the SBC as an effort to accelerate the development of the nation, and (c) the possibility of problems that will arise when the curriculum was adopted. Expected through the writings will be generated illustration of how a process of adoption will be faced with a number of problems to be overcome.
Innovative Aspects Curriculum 2006 (SBC)
SBC has been applied nationally in the year 2006 is clearly different from the previous curriculum. The most fundamental difference is that SBC is a product of the translation of the Law on National Education System No. 20 years in 2003 to adopt the Local Autonomy Law. Two important things that distinguish the SBC with the previous curriculum (as a result of the Local Autonomy Law) is (a) enactment of a diversified curriculum, and (b) the standardization of education. As we know that Indonesia is a heterogeneous country, whether viewed from the aspect of geographical and socio cultural background. This heterogeneity impacts that there are significant differences between local and central. With the enactment of the Regional Autonomy Law, each district has the authority to regulate their domestic affairs. Thus, the educational aspects of the same thing happen. If the validity period of centralization alone is causing a significant difference between the central and regional, it can be imagined what would happen with a decentralized education system.
To overcome these differences, the curriculum was developed with reference to national standards, meaning that although each region and even each school were given the freedom to develop curriculum in accordance with their respective capabilities, but still have to refer to the minimum standards of the national character. The hope is that the curriculum is developed (SBC) may adopt local needs but do not forget the aspect of quality / quality of education nationally.
Innovative aspects contained in the application of SBC include life skills education; development of local advantages in accordance characteristics, needs and demands of local, school-based curriculum, in the sense that although the basic framework and structures developed in a centralized curriculum, but the development of learning plan (syllabus & RPP) and developed the teaching and learning activities are decentralized; and disertakannya community participation.
Opportunities and challenges provided by SBC
SBC provides diversification opportunities emerging school, because curriculum is developed in the SBC, as already disclosed above, only contains the standard of competence / competency which is the basis of national standards, while further development is largely determined by the needs / characteristics of the school or the community around the school. These opportunities can be translated as a challenge for the school (education providers) in order to accelerate the development of the nation. Does the school as an education provider will run the place, “waiting for orders from above” as long as it is conditioned, or the school the opportunity to adopt it with the aim of improving educational quality people. This diversification enables the development of schooling system that was highly competitive, because the school was given full authority to develop the best curriculum and semaju possible but also looked at the needs and abilities of party education providers (schools). With the possibility of this diverisifikasi the education provider no longer be uniform, so that the expected acceleration of the nation’s development can be achieved.
Community participation is the role of the school committee provides input and advice on local excellence, become the next point in the opportunities inherent in the SBC. Community involvement, which has been regarded only as a “user” passive, allowing a more significant challenge, because the entry of the role / participation will involve new thoughts about the importance of improvement of the quality that comes from the user. The community can engage himself to the development and advancement of the school by promoting the advantages possessed by the local community. This means that the development of education comes from the needs of the region around the (local) and take advantage of local color, so the product of education no longer becomes a alieansi because the area of education progress is largely determined by the development of their local advantages.
Other opportunities are provided through the SBC is that school-based curriculum. This is indicated in addition to the curriculum will be developed according to needs and abilities of the school, also no less important is that the curriculum should be developed by teachers. In this case teachers not only as implementers of the curriculum, but also as a curriculum developer in its class. Consequently, teachers are required to be ready as curriculum developers, so they no longer hear that the development of learning plan is simply a “mere administrative work.” The consequence is a continued need for sustainable, intensive coaching for the teachers as the developer of the curriculum at the school level. Professionalization became a necessity, and teachers must continue to improve themselves in order to accelerate national development. Gurulah lies in the hands of our educational advance or retreat.
Possible Problems in Process Implementation
Application of SBC have been running three years, and so far it seems what is implemented on the ground still do not meet the demands of the curriculum. Not a few observers have questioned what the difference of education between the SBC with the previous curriculum, while among the teachers still there is a difference of opinion in interpreting the demands of the curriculum. Teachers re-use teaching habits as before. On the other hand, teachers feel that SK / KD did not give a clear direction and guidance (and detail) so they tend to search for “sample syllabus / RPP” ready-made and replicate it into the syllabus / RPP that will be used in learning.
The things that happened as mentioned above can be identified:
a. For too long teachers use teaching styles that refer to the position of teachers as curriculum users (all things have been determined from above so that teachers can implement it), and there is a tendency to maintain the force is (status quo), while the SBC requires teachers to become curriculum developers.
b. Lack of socialization process that SBC curriculum in the early entry into force will only be a one-shot training. How teachers can understand the content and demands of the curriculum with the introduction of done better if only for a limited time.
Lack of teacher understanding of curriculum orientation. In this case the orientation of the curriculum (which is one of the foundation curriculum) is the basic form of curriculum development, so understanding the orientation of the curriculum makes it easy to understand curriculum as a whole. For example, SBC on curricular achievement-oriented position in the orientation of Transaction, which means students as the central cause of this orientation considers the student has the ability to interact with the environment and the emphasis on process (Seller & Miller, 1985: 62-67) and the development of student activities is the aim of in order to achieve curricular goals. Thus, if the teacher does not understand the orientation of the curriculum that is implied in the SBC, then it is likely that there are teachers to provide some information (factual) to students, and ultimately students just memorize the facts that have been given by the teacher (and student learning in one direction Passive – tend Rote learning).
It seems a weakness in the process of implementation of SBC are more likely to lack understanding of what the teacher demands of the curriculum. In this case the problem of implementation is more in the position of the existing shortage of teachers as curriculum developers.
Changes in the curriculum is to be done in line with changes taking place in society. School curriculum always follow the change of time, because if not done then the change in education can not produce the next generation that responds to the developments. SBC is a form of a new curriculum that is full of change / innovation. This is done as a response to the need to anticipate changes in society.
Although the curriculum change, does not mean an automatic change will occur in the process of implementation in the field. Changes will not happen if the teachers as educators is not or has not made the changes. In this case may just be pengimpangan of what is expected by the curriculum. Anticipation of the deviation of curriculum implementation in the field can be done if you already know what the barriers to implementation of the curriculum.